François Gallet - Home page

Research Previous works CV Post-doc and thesis proposals Publications Biophysics group
in MSC

Professor of Physics at Université Paris 7 - Denis Diderot

Laboratory : "Matière et Systèmes Complexes" (MSC)
                        UMR 7057 associée au CNRS et à l'Université Paris 7
Head of biophysics group in MSC

Current research interests :

- Structure, dynamics and mechanical behavior of the cytoskeleton
- Cell microrheology (optical tweezers)
- Adhesive contacts : crosstalk between integrins and cadherins
- Aging and fluctuation-dissipation relations in out of equilibrium glassy systems
- Active fluctuating forces in living systems
Teaching :
- Mechanics, Electrostatics and Magnetostatics (L1, L2)
- Thermodynamics (Préparation à l'agrégation)
- Practical lab (Physique expériementale)
- Cell Mechanics (M2 : Biophysique cellulaire et moléculaire)
Other :
- Commission de spécialistes (28eme section)
- Conseil d'administration de l'Université Paris 7
Contact :
François Gallet
MSC - Case 7056
Batiment Condorcet
Université Paris-Diderot  (Paris 7)
10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet
75205 - Paris cedex 13 - FRANCE

tel : (+33) 1 57 27 62 14 -
FAX : (+33) 1 57 27 62 11
email : francois.gallet (at)

Red Blood Cell Membrane Elasticity

Etirement Globule Rouge
Cell Microrheology

Optical Tweezers

Active Forces in Living Cells

Dynamics of adhesive contacts

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Bidimensional electrons films at the free surface of liquid Helium (1977-1980)
Laboratoire de Physique du Solide et Résonance Magnétique - Orme des Merisiers, CE-Saclay
Doctorat de 3eme cycle (PhD), Université Paris 6,  advisor F. I. B. Williams, (nov. 1980).

Equililibrium, growth and roughening transition of He crystals surfaces (1982-1987)
Laboratoire de PhysiqueStatistique de l'ENS - Paris
Doctorat d'Etat, Université Paris 6,  advisor S. Balibar (nov. 1986). (Publications)

Superfluid transition of He films adsorbed in porous medium (1987-1988)
University of California at Los Angeles, Physics Department, G.A. Williams group (Publications)

Ordered phases in Langmuir films : structure, morphology and growth (1988-1996)
Laboratoire de Physique Statistique de l'ENS - Paris
Group : films, growth and wetting (Publications)

Graduated from Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS), Paris

Doctorat de 3eme cycle - PhD (1980), Université Paris 6

Docteur d’Etat (1986), Université Paris 6
Assistant professor at ENS (1979-1991)
Post-Doc at UCLA (1987-1988)
Junior member of Institut Universitaire de France (1991-1996)
Professor (1996-), Université Paris 7- Denis Diderot
"Equipe à l'honneur" award, by "Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer", oct. 2009


Bidimensional electrons films at the free surface of liquid Helium

F. Gallet, G. Deville, A. Valdès and F.I.B. Williams : "Fluctuations and shear modulus of a classical two-dimensional electron solid experiment". Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 212 (1982).

Equililibrium, growth and roughening transition of He crystals surfaces

P.E. Wolf, S. Balibar and F. Gallet : "Experimental observation of a third roughening transition on hcp 4He crystals". Phys. Rev. Lett. 51,1366 (1983).

F. Gallet, P.E. Wolf, S. Balibar : "Liquid-solid 4He interfacial tension : temperature variation near the superfluid transition". Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2253 (1984).

P. E. Wolf, F. Gallet, S. Balibar, E. Rolley and P. Nozières : "Crystal growth and crystal curvature near roughening transitions in hcp 4He". J. Physique 46, 137 (1985).

F. Gallet, S. Balibar, E. Rolley and P. Nozières : "Dynamical broadening of the roughening transition". Europhysics Lett. 2, 701 (1986).

E. Rolley, S. Balibar and F. Gallet : "The first roughening transition of 3He crystals". Europhys. Lett. 2, 247 (1986).

P. Nozières, F. Gallet : "The roughening transition of crystal surfaces I : Theory". Journal de Physique, 48, 353 (1987).

F. Gallet, S. Balibar and E. Rolley : "The roughening transition of crystal surfaces II : Experiment". Journal de Physique, 48, 369 (1987)

S. Balibar, F.Gallet, E.Rolley, P.E.Wolf : "La rugosité des surfaces cristallines" - communication à l'Académie des Sciences - La vie des Sciences  4 , 157 (1987)

E. Rolley, S. Balibar, F. Gallet, F. Graner and C. Guthman : "The surface tension of bcc 3He crystals", Europhys. Lett. 8, 523 (1989)

S. Balibar, F. Gallet and E. Rolley : "The dynamic roughening of crystals", Journal of Crystal Growth, 99, 46 (1990).

Superfluid transition of He films adsorbed in porous medium

F.Gallet, G.A.Williams : "Superfluid transition of 4He films adsorbed on multiply connected surfaces". Phys.Rev B39, 4673 (1989).

H.Cho, G.A.Williams, J.P.Desideri and F.Gallet : "Superfluid transition of 4He films adsorbed in porous superleaks", Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 35, 181 (1990).

Ordered phases in Langmuir films 

H. Bercegol,  F. Gallet, D. Langevin, J. Meunier : "Coexistence of an ordered anisotropic phase and a liquid phase in an amphiphilic monolayer", J. Physique,  50, 2277 (1989).

P. Muller, F. Gallet , "Shape anisotropy of ferroelectric domains in a Langmuir monolayer", J. Phys. Chem. 95, 3257 (1991)

P. Muller, F. Gallet, "First measurement of the liquid-solid line energy in a Langmuir monolayer", Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1106 (1991).

C. Flament and F. Gallet, "Long range interactions may induce a roughening transition in bidimensional crystals", Europhys. Lett. 20, 331 (1992).

A. El Abed, P. Peretti, P. Muller, F. Gallet and J. Billard, "Columnar phases of pyramidic amphiphiles spread at the air-water interface", J. Physique II, 3, 851 (1993).

C. Flament, K. Graf, F. Gallet, H. Riegler, "Structure of an anisotropic two-dimensional solid in a Langmuir film studied by electron scattering", Thin Solid Films 243, 411 (1994).

C. Flament, F. Gallet, " Phase diagram and morphology of anisotropic domains in a pure and mixed carbocyanine monolayer", Thin Solid Films 244, 1026 (1994).

C. Flament, F. Gallet, F. Graner, M. Goldmann, I. Peterson, A. Renault, "Structure of a two-dimensional crystal in a Langmuir monolayer : grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and macroscopic properties", Journal de Physique II, 4, 1021 (1994).

C. Flament and F. Gallet, "Elastic modulus and order parameter at the bidimensional smectic-isotropic transition in a mixed Langmuir monolayer", Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2456 (1994).

A. Saint-Jalmes, F. Graner, F. Gallet, B. Houchmandzadeh, "Buckling of a bidimensional solid", Europhys. Lett. 28, 565 (1994).

F. Graner, S. Perez-Oyarzun, A. Saint-Jalmes, C. Flament, F. Gallet, "Phospholipidic monolayers on formamide", J. Physique II, 5, 313 (1995).

A. Saint-Jalmes, F. Graner, F. Gallet, P. Nassoy, M. Goldmann, "Structure of bidimensional phospholipidic crystallites on formamide determined by X-ray diffraction", Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 234 (1995).

C. Flament and F. Gallet, "Ordered phases in pure and mixed dichroic monolayers", invited review, Modern Physics Letters B, 9 (1995) 1791.

S. Lefébure, C. Ménager, V. Cabuil, M. Assenheimer, F. Gallet, C. Flament : "Langmuir monolayers of monodispersed magnetic nanoparticles coated with a surfactant", J. Phys. Chem. B 102 (1998), 2733-2738.

A. Saint-Jalmes and F. Gallet, "Buckling in a solid Langmuir monolayer : light scattering measurements and elastic model", Eur. Phys. J. B 2 (1998) 489-494.

A. Saint-Jalmes, M. Assenheimer and F. Gallet, "Surface tension and compression modulus anisotropies of a phospholipidic monolayer spread on water and on formamide", J. Phys. Chem. B 102 (1998) 5810-5815.

Red blood Cell Membrane elasticity

S. Hénon, G. Lenormand, A. Richert, F. Gallet, "A new determination of the shear modulus of the human erythrocyte membrane using optical tweezers", Biophys. J., 1999, 76, p.1145-1151

G. Lenormand, S. Hénon, A. Richert, J. Siméon, F. Gallet, "Direct measurement of the area expansion and shear moduli of the human red blood cell membrane skeleton". Biophys. J., 2001, 81,  pp 43-56

G. Lenormand, S. Hénon, A. Richert, J. Siméon, F. Gallet, "Elasticity of the human red blood cell skeleton". Biorheology 40 247-251 (2003)

Cell Microrheology and Modelling

V. Laurent, S.Hénon, E. Planus, R. Fodil, M. Balland, D. Isabey, F. Gallet, "Assessment of mechanical properties of adherent living cells by bead micromanipulation : comparison of magnetic twisting cytometry vs optical tweezers", J. of Biomech. Eng.. 2002 124 : 408-21

A. Asnacios, M. Balland, N. Biais, O. Cardoso, N. Desprat, O. Du Roure, F. Gallet, F. Gerbal, S. Hénon, B. Ladoux, A. Richert, A. Saez, J. Siméon, "Des outils de micromécanique pour comprendre l’adhésion et la migration cellulaire", Bulletin de la SFP 148, p4-9 (2005)

M. Balland, A. Richert, F. Gallet, "The dissipative contribution of myosin II in the cytoskeleton dynamics of myoblasts", Eur. Biophys. J. 34, 255-261 (2005)

M. Balland, N. Desprat, D. Icard, S. Fereol, A. Asnacios, J. Browaeys, S. Hénon, and F. Gallet, "Power laws in microrheology experiments on living cells : comparative analysis and modelling". Phys. Rev. E. 74, 021911 (2006) []

Fluctuation-dissipation in colloidal glasses and in living cells

B. Abou, F. Gallet, "Probing a nonequilibrium Einstein relation in an aging colloidal glass", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160603-1;160603-4 (2004) []

B. Abou, F. Gallet, P. Monceau, N. Pottier, "Generalized Einstein Ralation in an Aging Colloidal Glass", Physica A, 387, 3410-3422 (2008)"

F. Gallet, D. Arcizet, P. Bohec, A. Richert, "Power Spectrum of Out-of-equilibrium Forces in Living Cells : Amplitude and Frequency Dependence", Soft Matter, 5, 2947 - 2953 (2009)

Dynamics of adhesive contacts

M. Allioux-Guérin, D. Icard-Arcizet, S. Hénon, F. Gallet, JC. Mevel, MJ. Masse and M. Coppey-Moisan, "Spatio-temporal analysis of cell response to a rigidity gradient: a quantitative study by multiple optical tweezers" Biophys J. 96, 238 - 247 (2009)

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THESIS PROPOSAL starting sept. 2009.
Interactions réciproques cellule-cellule et cellule-substrat (en français)
Crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesive contact (in english)

FORMER PhD Students :

Pierre Muller
(Paris, dec. 1991)
Phase ordonnée anisotrope dans un film de Langmuir : morphologie, croissance et tension de ligne.
[Anisotropic ordered phase in a Langmuir film : morphology, growth and line tension]
Cyrille Flament (Paris, may 1994)
Etude de phases ordonnées bidimensionnelles dans les films de Langmuir: structure d'un cristal anisotrope ; paramètre d'ordre et module d'élasticité d'un cristal liquide.
[Study of bidimensional ordered phases in Langmuir films : structure of an anisotropic crystal ; order parameter and elastic modulus of a liquid crystal]
Arnaud Saint-Jalmes (Paris, sept. 1997)
Monocouches de phospholipides à l'interface air-formamide : structure et propriétés mécaniques.
[Phospholipidic monolayers at the air-formamid interface : structure and mechanical properties]

Guillaume Lenormand
(Paris, oct. 2001) (Sylvie Hénon, co-director)
Elasticité du squelette du globule rouge humain – une étude par pinces optiques.
[Elasticity of the human red blood cell skeleton : an optical tweezers study]

Nicolas Biais
(Paris, apr. 2004) (Olivier Cardoso, co-director)
Systèmes biomimétiques vésiculaires confinés : méthodes et applications à l'encapsulation d'asters de microtubules et de ferrofluides
[Biomimetics systems confined in vesicles : methods and applications to the encapsulation of microtubules asters and ferrofluids]

Martial Balland
(Paris, nov. 2004)
Etude microrhéologique du réseau d'actine de cellules en culture en présence de facteurs biochimiques modifiant sa dynamique
[Microrheological study of the actin network in cultivated cells with biochemical factors modifying its dynamics]

Pierre Bohec (2008 - )
Fluctuations de forces actives dans les systemes vivants
[Active force fluctuations in living systems]

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Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes,
CNRS UMR 7057, Université Paris 7
Equipe Physique du Vivant - Biophysics Group
(july 2009)

CELL MECHANICS - uniaxial stretching :

Atef Asnacios, MCF Paris 7
Jonathan Fouchard, PhD student
Démosthène Mitrossilis, PhD student

CELL MECHANICS - optical tweezers :
Sylvie Hénon, Pr Paris 7
François Gallet, Pr Paris 7
Amsha Proag, PhD Student
Pierre Bohec, PhD Student
Alia Al-Kilani, Post-doc

ADHESION AND MIGRATION - arrays of micropillars :
Benoît Ladoux, MCF Paris 7
Jimmy Ledigabel, PhD student
Ester Anon, PhD Student

Olivier Cardoso, MCF Paris 7
Fabien Gerbal, MCF Paris 6

Pascal Hersen, CR CNRS

Jean-Pierre Henry, DR CNRS

MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES - cell mechanics, migration, MRI,  in vivo vectorisation, hyperthermy :

Florence Gazeau, DR CNRS
Claire Wilhelm, CR CNRS
Damien Robert, PhD student
Mikael Levy, PhD student
Guillaume Frasca, PhD student

Jean-François Berret, DR CNRS
Malak Safi, PhD Student
Minhao Ya, Post-doc

Jean-Marc Di Meglio, Pr Paris 7
Charlotte Py, MCF Paris 7
Ghani Oukhaled, post-doc
Felix Lebois, PhD Student

Miglena Angelova, Pr Paris6
NIcolas Puff, MCF Paris 6
Michel Seigneuret, DR CNRS
Helène Conjeaud, CR CNRS


Alain Richert, Tech. CNRS
Nathalie Luciani, IR CNRS
 M. Coppey, Institut Jacques Monod, Paris

D. Isabey, IMRB, INSERM, Univ. Paris 12, Créteil

A. Buguin, P. Silberzan, UMR 168, Institut Curie, Paris

R. M. Mège, Institut du fer à moulin, Paris

S. Dufour, UMR 144, Institut Curie, Paris
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